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Salamanca, Spain - attractions, pictures

 

In 1178 Salamanca received city privileges (fueros), being the second largest city in the kingdom. Then it was the kingdom of Leon and the largest city was Leon. The final unification with Castile occurred in 1230.
In 1218, the first university in the Iberian Peninsula was opened in Salamanca.
It is clear that there are enough sights in the Salamanca .

 

 Fueros of Salamanca

Фуэрос Саламанки

 

As in any historical Castilian city, there are many monasteries in Salamanca. The дфкпуые - Dominican monastery of St. Stefan.
The complex includes several connected buildings with a courtyard surrounded by a gallery. Colonnade, the facade in the style of the plateresque - very spacious and majestic. All in one style (late Gothic Renaissance), which happens very rarely. Usually, religious buildings were built for a long time, because the scale of the construction required increased funding. During this time, the architectural fashion changed, so many churches are the buildings by which these changes can be studied. Apparently, the Dominican Order did not has problems with finances, since in 1524 the existing buildings of the monastery (founded in 1256) were completely demolished and in their place, according to a single plan, what we see now is built.
The monastery is functioning, but visitors are allowed, and you can see not only the church, but also other premises.

 

 Salamanca. Dominican monastery of St. Stefan

Dominican monastery of St. Stefan
Convento de San Esteban (XVI-XVII century)

 

 Salamanca. Dominican monastery of St. Stefan

Dominican monastery of St. Stefan
Convento de San Esteban (XVI-XVII century)

 

 Salamanca. Dominican monastery of St. Stefan

Dominican monastery of St. Stefan
Convento de San Esteban (XVI-XVII century)

 

 Salamanca. Dominican monastery of St. Stefan

Dominican monastery of St. Stefan
Convento de San Esteban (XVI-XVII century)

 

 Salamanca. Dominican monastery of St. Stefan

Dominican monastery of St. Stefan
Convento de San Esteban (XVI-XVII century)

 

 Salamanca. Dominican monastery of St. Stefan

Dominican monastery of St. Stefan
Convento de San Esteban (XVI-XVII century)

 

 Salamanca. Dominican monastery of St. Stefan

Dominican monastery of St. Stefan
Convento de San Esteban (XVI-XVII century)

 

 Salamanca. Dominican monastery of St. Stefan

Dominican monastery of St. Stefan
Convento de San Esteban (XVI-XVII century)

 

Across the street from the monastery of St. Stefan is another Dominican monastery - St. Mary, or simply a convent of women (duenas). In general, "duenna" does not translate literally, it means something like "an elderly woman who looks after the household (or mistress :)".
The monastery was founded in 1419 by a certain wealthy townspeople who decided to go to nuns and, in order not to go far, converted the palace into a monastery. It is clear that she became not a simple nun, but the abbess of a new monastery.

 

 Salamanca. Monastery of St. Mary

 Monastery of St. Mary
Convento de Santa Maria - Convento de las Duenas (XV-XVI century)

 

 Salamanca. Monastery of St. Mary

Monastery of St. Mary
Convento de Santa Maria - Convento de las Duenas (XV-XVI century)

 

The next monastery is the Order of the Holy Trinity (Trinitarius). From him remained only the Baroque church, which was then called - the church of St. Trinity. After the abolition of the monastery, the church became a parish and changed its name in honor of St. Paul.

 

 

 Salamanca. Church of St. Paul

Church of St. Paul
Iglesia de La Santisima Trinidad - Parroquia de San Pablo (XVII century)

 

National Spanish Order of St. Jacob (Santiago) also left his mark in Salamanca. The Church of the Holy Spirit used to belong to the monastery of St. Anna (founded in 1190), in which the wives of knights who went to war were received. The existing church, of course, built later.
The monastery was abolished in 1836, the buildings belonging to it (except the church) were confiscated and then destroyed.

 

 Salamanca. Church of the Holy Spirit

  Church of the Holy Spirit
Iglesia de Sancti Spiritus (XVI century)

 

Monastery of the Annunciation Ursulines (female branch of the Order of the Franciscans) was founded in the middle of the XVI century. The original building was very small and had nothing similar with the building that a century later was overthrown. The monastery itself is ordinary, but the church is impressive both in size and configuration.

 

 Salamanca. Monastery of the Annunciation

  Monastery of the Annunciation
Convento de la Anunciacion (XVI-XVIII century)

 

 Salamanca. Monastery of the Annunciation

Monastery of the Annunciation
Convento de la Anunciacion (XVI-XVIII century)

 

The Augustinian monastery in Salamanca was founded by one of the earls of Fonseca (also Count Monterrey) for his daughter, who became the abbess in it. The monastery is located directly next to the Monterrey Palace. It was assumed that the monastery church would serve as a burial place for the count and his family.

 

 Salamanca. Augustinian Monastery

 Augustinian Monastery
Convento de las Agustinas (XVII century)

 

Monastery of St. Franciscus of the Capuchins in Salamanca was founded in the XIII century (apparently the Franciscans, since the Order of the Capuchins was formed only in the 16th century, as a branch of the Order of St. Francis). From the old church only a part of the apse remained, all the rest is rebuilt in the Baroque style.

 

 Salamanca. Королевский Монастырь св. Франциска

 The Royal Monastery of St. Francis
El Convento de San Francisco el Real (XIII-XVIII century)

 

In addition to the monastic orders, there were also public associations, which dealt, mainly, with the organization of festive religious processions. The oldest of them in Salamanca "The glorious Brotherhood of the Holy Cross of the Savior and Immaculate Conception, his mother" had even his own chapel. In 1714 it was rebuilt in the baroque style.

 

 Salamanca. Chapel of St. The True Cross

 Chapel of St. The True Cross
Capilla de la Santa Veracruz (XVI-XVIII century)

 

Church of St. Martin of Tour, as a result of numerous changes, turned out to be a symbiosis of completely different buildings. Suffice it to say that she had three portals, of which there are now two - Romanesque (pictured) and Renaissance. The third entrance was built up by a chapel. It's no wonder that these so different parts are badly held together :), so even now it is required to carry out repairs.

 

 Salamanca. Church of St. Martin

Church of St. Martin
Iglesia de San Martin de Tours (XII-XX century)

 

Church of St. Cristobal in Salamanca was founded by the Knights of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem (Hospitallers) in 1145 and survived to our time in approximately the same form. A perfect example of a Romanesque style - a strict building in the shape of a cross with a semicircular apse.

 

 Salamanca. Church of St. Cristobal

  Church of St. Cristobal
Iglesia de San Cristobal (XII century)

 

Church of St. John the Baptist Barbalos was founded by one of the knights of the Hospitaller Order. Barbalos is a village 45 km away from Salamanca, which still exists, but the church is so called not because John the Baptist was from this village. :) Just the Order had extensive territory there, and local residents had a habit of adding to the name of the church something like a nickname. I understand that this was due to the fact that there were fewer popular saints than churches and some other identification signs were required, because churches of the same patron could well be relatively close to each other.
The building is typically Romanesque, but, with a built in the XVIII century baroque bell tower.u

 

 Salamanca. Church of St. John the Baptist Barbalos

 Church of St. John the Baptist Barbalos
Iglesia de San Juan Bautista de Barbalos (XII-XVIII century)

 

Another Romanesque church is St. Mark. Very atypical, absolutely round building. Previously, she was directly at the city wall, next to the gate. The bell tower, although I did not find any mention of this, obviously of a later origin.

 

 Salamanca. Church of St. Mark

Church of St. Mark
Iglesia de San Marcos (XII century)

 

Gothic church built in the XVI century. quite a rare phenomenon. Probably, the church of St. Benedict in Salamanca owes its appearance exclusively to the personal preferences of the sponsor - Alonso II Count Fonseca, who resided in the local parish and was baptized in the previous (existing from the XII century) parish church.

 

 Salamanca. Church of St. Benedict

 Church of St. Benedict
Parroquia de San Benito (XVI century)

 

Church of St. Mary Knights in Salamanca was founded in the 12th century, what we see now is traces of restorations. The knight's church was called either, if it was built with the means of a knightly order (St. Mary, in particular, was considered the patroness of the Knights Templar), or, if visited by the military.
It is interesting that in 2010 the episcopate handed over this building to the Romanian Orthodox Church. It turns out that in the province of Salamanca there are many Romanians.

 

 Salamanca. Church of St. Maria

 Church of St. Mary Knights
Parroquila de Santa Maria de los Caballeros (XVI-XVIII century)

 

Church of St. John of Sahagun, one might say, is modern, but it is interesting to dedicate not to the most famous saint. The fact is that the St. Juan, you might say, is local. Although he was born in Sahagun (it is quite far - about 200 km.). He spent most of his life in Salamanca, in the monastery of St. Peter, and is buried in the local cathedral.

 

 Salamanca. Church of St. John of Sahagun

 Church of St. John of Sahagun
Parroquia de San Juan de Sahagun (XIX century)

 

House of St. Theresa in Salamanca is another building in which the appearance is not important, but the content, in this case - the personality of the tenant. The building itself does not represent anything special, although it is interesting to look at an ordinary house of the 15th century - not a church or a palace. But Teresa of Avila, who lived here for almost four years, is considered one of the reformers of the church and the first Spanish women writer.

 

 Salamanca. House of St. Theresa

 House of St. Theresa
Casa de Santa Teresa (XV century)

 

In Salamanca, quite a few examples of civil architecture have survived.

The University of Salamanca is the oldest in Spain and one of the oldest in Europe (founded in 1218). This is the first university in Europe, in which the own public library appeared. In Salamanca University in the late XV century. The commission to assess the prospects of the Columbus expedition to India was working here. What were the results of the meeting, it is still unknown. :) University buildings are scattered throughout the city, among them there are modern ones. In the center of the city, this is of course the old buildings.
The building, which now used as a municipal audience, was the church of St. Blasius, founded in the XIII century in the area of ​​concentration of local poor. In the XVIII century it was rebuilt anew, but badly damaged in the War of Independence and in the end, was transferred to the municipality.

 

 Salamanca. The audience of St. Blaise

 The audience of St. Blaise
Auditorio de San Blas (XVIII century)

 


The Plaza Mayor was built, which is called "from scratch", and it is perfectly clear from it - all buildings are the same, except for the municipality. This, so to say, "gift" of Philip V to the city, who supported him in the struggle for the crown.

 

 Salamanca. Plaza Mayor

Plaza Mayor (XVIII century)

 

The air tower is actually the palace of the Fermoselle family and originally this palace had four towers, i.e. in fact it was a fortress. And this was by no means an excess at a time when the nobles continually fought each other. The infrequent architectural evidence of that era. Why is the tower now so called is not clear. Unless by the name of the street Air, on which the house is located.

 

 Salamanca. Palace Fermoselle - Tower of Air

 Palace Fermoselle - Tower of Air
El Palacio de los Fermoselle - Torre del Aire (XV century)

 

The palace of Don Rodrigo de Messia de Fonseca is called the palace of salt, because there were warehouses of this product. It's a bit odd to arrange a warehouse in the palace, but apparently the point is that here this salt was sold (to large wholesalers), so some convenience was arranged for the buyers. And this Don Rodrigo was simply the largest salt dealer. In any case, the location of the house - with direct access to the street, says that it has never been used as a dwelling.

 

 Salamanca. Fonseca Palace - Salt Palace

Fonseca Palace - Salt Palace
Palacio de Fonseca - Palacio de la Salina (XVI century)

 

Houses in the cities were numbered not so long ago. Previously, to navigate, they were called by the name of the owner or by some distinctive features.
In turn, the architects tried to give buildings some distinctive features.
The shell house is distinguished by a facade with decorative shells. True, they appeared almost two centuries after the construction of the house. Originally it was a palace, then a university prison, and now there is a public library.

 

 Salamanca. Shell house

 Shell house
Casa de las Conchas (XV-XVI century)

 

The House of the Dead has on the facade four skulls, which, in fact, are not very noticeable - they seem to hang from the bottom of the shoals of the upper windows. But, in the XIX century in this house there was a murder of four people, after which the name was fixed forever.

 

 Salamanca. House of the Dead

 House of the Dead
Casa de las Muertes (XVI century)

 

The palace of the counts of Montrérray was conceived in the form of a grand quadrangle with towers at the corners and courtyard. Only one wing was built, but despite this, the palace is considered a model of the architecture of the Spanish Renaissance.

 

 Salamanca. Monterrey Palace

 Monterrey Palace
Palacio de Monterrey (XVI century)

 

Another example of a Renaissance style, one of the buildings of the university is the college of Archbishop Fonseca. Inside there is the same courtyard, which could not be built in the palace of Monterrey.

 

 Salamanca. College of Archbishop Fonseca

 College of Archbishop Fonseca
Colegio Arzobispo Fonseca (XVI century)

 

The tower of Castellan remained from the Palace of Castellan (is a post) of the Order of Alcantara. This is the spiritual (not monastic) knightly Spanish Order.

 

 Salamanca.  Tower of Castellan

 Tower of Castellan
Torre del Clavero (XV century)

 

Anaya Tower is also part of the former palace, Anaya is the surname of the owners.

 

 Salamanca. Anaya Tower

Anaya Tower
Torre de los Anaya (XVI century)

 

The bridge across the Tormes River is the only thing left of the Romans in Salamanca. The river changed the channel, that part of the bridge, which belongs to the Roman era (the first 14 arches), remained on the shore, and its continuation, built later, was required.

 

 Salamanca. Roman Bridge

 Roman Bridge
Puente Romano (I century)

 

The cathedral of Salamanca consists of two cathedrals, united by a common wall. It so happened because, when in the beginning of the XVI century it took a more spacious room for the growing population of the city, then decided not to rebuild the old cathedral, and build a new one, nearby, and the old one is used for the intended purpose while construction is in progress. However, the work lasted so long that to their end (XVIII century), the old cathedral was already a historical attraction and did not demolish it, for which the then city authorities thank you very much.
An external inspection presents some difficulties, since none of the cathedrals, for obvious reasons, can not be seen entirely. They, however, are quite similar, despite the fact that the old one has some Romanesque elements, and a new Baroque one.
Here inside the difference is significant. If the New Cathedral is quite traditional - large-scale, in gold and silver, then the Old Cathedral of Salamanca is somehow homely, with chapels decorated not with gold, but with frescoes. And, incidentally, there is just a difference in styles - in the interior of the Old Cathedral there are much more Romance features than Gothic.

 

 Salamanca.  Old cathedral

 Old cathedral
La Catedral Vieja (XII-XIII century)

 

 Salamanca.  Old cathedral

 Old cathedral
La Catedral Vieja (XII-XIII century)

 

 Salamanca. Old cathedral

Old cathedral
La Catedral Vieja (XII-XIII century)

 

 Salamanca.  Old cathedral

 Old cathedral
La Catedral Vieja (XII-XIII century)

 

 Salamanca. New cathedral

 New cathedral
La Catedral Nueva (XVI-XVIII century)

 

 Salamanca. New cathedral

 New cathedral
La Catedral Nueva (XVI-XVIII century)

 

 Salamanca. New cathedral

 New cathedral
La Catedral Nueva (XVI-XVIII century)

 

 Salamanca. New cathedral

 New cathedral
La Catedral Nueva (XVI-XVIII century) 

 

What did not like me in Salamanca.
Both the railway and bus stations are located far from the historical center, and far apart - getting inconvenient.
But, the main thing is the unintelligible identification of sights. There are no normal tablets or stands with information. All that can be seen is the name of the object written on the wall (true, in beautiful letters), sometimes quite badly damaged by the elements.

 

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Tourist map of attractions in Salamanca
Tourist map of attractions in Salamanca

 

 

 

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